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Gig economy and rights  | Daily FT

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Uber is in the local news again over worker complaints that the platform is too demanding and pushing them to work outside of local labour laws. The restaurants are also unhappy they are being charged rates as high as 30% for deliveries at a time when they are struggling to survive.

Work is ever-evolving and technology driven economic changes come as a mixed bag for countries with large informal sectors. On one hand, the lack of regulation means the gig economy can plug into and employ informal workers fast but on aspects of customer service, protection, social security and overall accountability, there can be some yawning gaps. 

The spread of emerging technologies is changing organisational structures and employee management practices. With full-time and permanent employment being replaced by part-time and contractual work, there are less associated benefits and security for employees. In Sri Lanka, the divergence from standard forms of employment is reflected in increasing demand for flexible work, often both from employers and employees, and the platformisation of services. 

Much of this will work to dilute established employment standards, as the nature and culture of work is constantly altered, acknowledges an International Labour Organisation report released last year titled the ‘Future of Work’. Changing and diverging youth aspirations are also likely to reconfigure the dominant perceptions around suitable work and working conditions.

The ‘casualisation’ of work and non-standard forms of work are increasing. With the introduction of new technologies, employers are able to forecast and manage their labour needs in real time, as well as remotely. 

The impact of this is likely to be felt most acutely by low-skilled work, where both physical and cognitive tasks are repetitive and do not require extensive human intervention. 

The platformisation of work has far-reaching implications, particularly in terms of restructuring the employer-employee relationship. Though the ‘gig-economy’ offers new job opportunities to part-time and casual workers, it is also likely to reveal new inefficiencies and inequities. There is concern that the platform economy will create new forms of precarious work, eroding workers’ livelihoods and rights in significant ways. 

This is perhaps best seen in the public ire directed at Uber, whose taxi service has been faulted repeatedly for not having a customer service presence in Sri Lanka with even calls for boycott doing the rounds on social media. Modern work environments are affecting collective bargaining practices, especially unionisation. 

The rise of non-standard forms of employment and outsourcing, specifically in the IT and BPO sectors, is making collective organising on the job significantly harder. Further, in the absence of shared working spaces and employers, remote platform workers face multiple difficulties in connecting with other workers within the digital freelancing ecosystem. The report goes onto observe that labour welfare and access to technology gains is going to be shaped by underlying socio-economic conditions and inequities. While technological disruptions and digitisation can work towards levelling the playing field, the existing social inequities are likely to get reproduced or even further entrenched with the spread of new technologies. Women are likely be able to avail new economic opportunities but the gendered division of labour will persist.

Current economic disparities are likely to be reproduced, entrenched and even exacerbated with technological adoption. Skilling gaps and language impediment will pose a challenge for workers in accessing decent work and technology gains. 

Decisive policymaking and action is needed to confront a future where technology may not lead to progress and development for all. Therefore, intervention is needed to shape the future of work so that it may be equitable and inclusive. Many would argue it is already a key challenge for policymakers. 

 


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Labor Groups, San Francisco Push Bogus Taxpayer-Funded Survey to Support Anti-Gig Law

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A liberal advocacy group’s own researchers raised red flags about a taxpayer-funded study used to justify a union campaign against the California gig economy.

The San Francisco Local Agency Formation Commission helped fund a survey conducted by Jobs with Justice, a left-wing advocacy group largely funded by labor powerhouse Service Employees International Union (SEIU). The survey reported that 71 percent of gig workers in the San Francisco area work more than 30 hours a week and receive “poverty level” wages. According to the group’s website, Jobs with Justice planned to use the survey to “make policy recommendations and support organizing” among gig workers. The survey’s summary page emphasizes the need to enforce anti-gig labor laws.

Left-wing labor group Gig Workers Rising has used the survey to rally in support of California Assembly Bill 5, a controversial law limiting companies’ ability to classify workers as independent contractors. The group called the study “the most comprehensive survey of actual work done” in the gig economy. Internal communications obtained by the Washington Free Beacon, however, reveal that the survey was pitched to potential financial backers as “not representative,” and an academic researcher involved in the study voiced concerns regarding Jobs with Justice’s recruitment tactics.

While the study initially called for 1,200 survey respondents, Jobs with Justice narrowed the scope following the spread of coronavirus, pivoting to an online survey focusing on the pandemic that aimed to reach just 500 respondents.

“The goal behind an online survey of 500 workers, while not representative, would be to turn around data quickly … in order to inform current policy discussions,” an internal description of the updated survey obtained by the Free Beacon said. It went on to reach just 219 respondents.

Pacific Research Institute senior fellow Wayne Winegarden criticized the study’s methodology, calling the survey’s results “meaningless.”

“The survey is not representative of the intended population with the original goal of 500 responses,” Winegarden told the Free Beacon. “The study did not reach this amount, having only 219 responses. So, in no uncertain terms do these results represent the view of gig workers.”

The study also downplayed Jobs with Justice’s involvement in an attempt to bolster its academic appeal. While the published survey lists UC Santa Cruz professor Chris Benner as the project’s lead, Jobs with Justice executive director Kung Feng is described as “leading” the project in internal emails obtained by the Free Beacon. The emails also show that the online survey was written by the group’s research director, Erin Johansson. Benner merely “edited the wording in a few questions,” according to the internal communications.

Benner, who did not return request for comment, also raised concerns regarding Jobs with Justice’s incentive plan to provide a gift card to all survey respondents.

“One, I’m not sure where the budget for that comes from, and two, with an online survey, it leaves open lots of opportunities for people to game it,” Benner wrote in a March 17 email to Johansson.

Following the academic’s objection, Gig Workers Rising continued to advertise the survey in an April tweet by saying respondents would “get a $10 gift card.” A Jobs with Justice invoice for the study listed $45,181 in “survey costs,” including “incentives and app payments.” While the published study lists the gig economy companies each of the survey’s 219 respondents work for, internal data obtained by the Free Beacon shows that 91 of the respondents did not report their company, suggesting some may have been non-gig workers who completed the survey for the incentive.

The invoice was sent to San Francisco Local Agency Formation Commission executive officer Bryan Goebel, who solicited funding for the study on Jobs with Justice’s behalf, internal emails show. Reached for comment, Goebel said the coronavirus-related study “was never intended to be” representative and that $50,000 in taxpayer funds were used only for the “initial pilot survey” launched prior to coronavirus. The final study combined the results of both the pilot survey and coronavirus-related survey, a methodological red flag, according to Winegarden.

“In the midst of the survey being in the field, they stopped the survey, reworked it to account for the coronavirus, and then continued with the survey,” Winegarden told the Free Beacon. “These results from before and after cannot be compared to one another.”

Goebel also told the Free Beacon that Benner “was indeed the overall lead” on the study, adding that Jobs with Justice simply “led the outreach.” He did not address the fact that the coronavirus-related survey was drafted by Jobs with Justice.

Charlyce Bozzello, a spokeswoman for labor watchdog the Center for Union Facts, said activist front groups often misuse research to advance their ideological goals.

“For years, unions have used flawed ‘research’ to support their organizing campaigns, so it’s no surprise to see Jobs with Justice involved in this project,” she told the Free Beacon. “What is surprising is that the city of San Francisco and UC Santa Cruz would lend their names to this charade.”

Other gig economy studies dispute Jobs with Justice’s findings. A Cornell University study published Monday found that 96 percent of Uber and Lyft drivers in Seattle drove less than 40 hours a week. It further found that 92 percent made more than Seattle’s minimum wage of $16.39, with the media driver earning $23.25 per hour after deducting expenses.

Jobs with Justice and Gig Workers Rising did not respond to requests for comment.

Collin AndersonCollin Anderson is a staff writer for the Washington Free Beacon. He graduated from the University of Missouri, where he studied politics. He is originally from St. Louis and now lives in Arlington, VA. His email address is anderson@freebeacon.com.



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Why the Uber driver case has the potential to alter Canada’s gig economy forever

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Heller was a driver for UberEats who argued that he was an employee, not an independent contractor. That meant Uber owed him overtime, vacation, holiday pay, as well as other entitlements.

The Supreme Court didn’t answer the question of whether Heller and other Uber drivers were employees or not, so in that respect the real issue lies ahead. But it did remove an important roadblock, paving the way for a potentially $400 million lawsuit.

Tucked away in the contractor agreement that every Uber driver must sign before they can start working is an arbitration clause.

The clause required drivers to bring any problems to arbitration in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and not to an Ontario court. The arbitration in Amsterdam would cost around $14,000 in administrative fees up front, as well as the cost of transport and legal representation in the Netherlands. Something no Uber driver could even possibly afford. Take Heller himself, who earns around $400 to $600 a week for 40 or more hours of work.

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Gig Economy Ballot Measure Fails Workers, Labor Groups Say (1)

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Daily Labor Report®

July 7, 2020, 8:45 PM

A California ballot measure supported by ride-hailing and delivery companies would lower workers’ wages and limit the power of legislators to institute new labor protections, according to a new report from two labor advocacy groups.

Proposition 22, known as the “Protect App-Based Drivers and Services Act,” will appear before California voters in November and is backed by $110 million from Uber, Lyft, Postmates, Instacart and Doordash. The companies say their workers want to preserve their status as independent contractors, while the National Employment Law Project and the Partnership for Working Families counter that the proposition would roll back existing protections under a state law giving certain gig workers…

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