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What Prop 22 means for the American gig economy’s future

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Gig Economy The gig worker ecosystem as it is in the U.S. is far from perfect, and the legislation and protections provided to this broad spectrum of workers is in need of a major overhaul. (Photo: Shutterstock)

California is as resilient as ever in the face of the unknown. Aside from wildfires, a global pandemic, and the resulting mass exodus from urban centers, a major concern for businesses that rely on gig workers has been California’s new AB-5 ruling.

To start, we’ll need to fully clarify what exactly AB-5 is, along with its resulting implications. California Assembly Bill 5 (AB-5) is a California law that went into effect January 1, 2020, that “…requires companies that hire independent contractors to reclassify them as employees, with a few exceptions,” according to Investopedia’s Rebecca Lake.

Related: Uber, Lyft score a win with Prop 22. Now what?

This law has been spotlighted as of late given three major gig-worker employers — Uber, Lyft, and DoorDash — have resisted enacting its mandates since its passing. The very same companies, however, have been reprimanded for their lack of compliance to AB-5, and “…on Aug. 10, 2020, California Superior Court Judge Ethan Schulman ordered the companies to reclassify their contract drivers as employees with the same protections and benefits as their other staffers,” Lake continues. This means that these companies would become responsible for providing the same benefits that traditional employees are entitled to, including workers’ compensation, unemployment insurance, family leave, and much more.

That’s not all there is to the story. On September 4, 2020, an additional law was passed that created exceptions for numerous types of professional gig workers, stating these individuals would be exempt from the mandates of the AB5 ruling, including (but not limited to): insurance agents, certain health care professionals, securities broker-dealers, investment advisers, certain types of salespeople, real estate agents and more.

That said, there are several red flags with this approach for the everyday gig-worker in California. This law is about to set a precedent that would extend employee classification to gig workers employed by companies like Uber, Lyft, DoorDash and more, which would be impossible to enforce in one single month. Plus, it would be very costly for said businesses and majorly disrupt not only their operations, but also the livelihoods of the tens of thousands of people who work for them. There will also almost certainly be more professions that crop up and need inclusion on the already running list of exemptions, triggering the need for added layers of legislation, and so on and so forth.

In response to these issues, gig worker-supported businesses shelled out almost $200 million to support a state ballot measure known as Prop 22, which California citizens voted to pass in November. Companies like Uber, Lyft and DoorDash will now be exempt from reclassifying gig workers as employees. Associated gig workers would maintain their independent contractor status, while wage, safety and benefit standards would be implemented. This will include items like health care compensation.

Prop 22 at a glance

Business operations impact:

  • Business remains uninterrupted
  • Business is not responsible for worker productivity
  • Businesses like Uber, Lyft and DoorDash would be required to develop sexual harassment policies, perform background checks, mandate driver safety training

Worker benefits

  • Health insurance stipend
  • Companies must pay at least 120% of min wage for every hour spent driving
  • Insurance that covers illness/injuries on the job

Worker classification

  • Contract worker
  • Traditional employee
  • Pros for gig workers
  • Flexible hours
  • Time off
  • Work whenever/schedule not dictated by employer
  • Free to seek work elsewhere
  • New policies prohibiting workplace discrimination
  • Employers required to develop sexual harassment policies

Pros for consumers

  • Prices for services remain low
  • Greater access to rideshare/delivery services
  • Shorter wait time
  • Drivers required to undergo background checks/safety training

Pros for major players, like Uber, Lyft and Doordash

  • Save the cost of overhead, benefits, severance, payroll tax, unemployment insurance, etc.
  • Higher profits
  • Don’t have to reimburse for fuel or vehicle expenses

What Prop 22 means for gig workers

It is clear that the introduction and intention of AB-5 is to fight for better compensation for workers, but where it falls short is in its attempt to forcibly weave outdated processes into a modern economic issue, without any actual beneficial fix.

Failure to pass Prop 22 would have completely removed the option for thousands of individuals who rely on those positions to earn extra income. Up to 76% of Uber drivers alone would have lost their jobs, leaving 158,000 Californians scrambling to find other ways to earn an income — which could prove exceptionally difficult in the current pandemic-driven economic climate of mass furloughs and unemployment spikes.

With Prop 22′s approval, workers maintain their independent contractor status, leaving the door open for these individuals who earn money from these services to continue to earn.

The NAACP, one of the largest proponents of Prop 22, offered a unique perspective. In their eyes, gig work like driving for Uber, Lyft or DoorDash “…provides an accessible, low barrier-to-entry way to earn income for those who often find traditional employment challenging — communities of color, seniors, disabled veterans and those formerly incarcerated.”

It’s also important for all of us to think about the impact that access to this type of gig work can make in the lives of immigrant workers. A recent article by Greg Ferenstein sheds light on the huge population of Brazilian drivers in San Francisco. “Many escaped South America’s terrible economy to learn English and earn a better living in the global market,” he writes. “It’s hard for them to pass interviews for employee work. While driving, they practice speaking with passengers with the hopes of one day returning and providing for their family with the kind of money that a bi-lingual speaker can make.” Moreover, not every gig worker wants to become a traditional employee. Many enjoy the freedom and flexibility that the gig work lifestyle provides.

Regardless, the consequences of Prop 22 will have long-lasting impacts on gig workers in California and set a precedent for the rest of the country.

The future of gig work in California and beyond

The gig worker ecosystem as it is in the U.S. is far from perfect, and the legislation and protections provided to this broad spectrum of workers is in need of a major overhaul. The truth is that some independent contractors need more protection than others. For instance, an Uber driver earning $20 an hour will need a much more robust safety blanket than a data scientist earning $350 an hour, and is exactly why different structures should apply.

A universal solution simply does not exist, and AB-5 is not the right way to get closer to a semblance of balance. “Ultimately, the greatest impact of Prop 22, passage or not, may actually be felt outside of California,” wrote Joel Feldman of Slate Law Group. “As the legal challenges over AB-5 show, labor laws were not prepared for the gig economy and current regulations did not anticipate the use of independent contractors in such a way and at such a large scale.”

This is sure to be one of the most significant cases in a long string of such laws in states throughout the U.S. California’s decision will likely determine the outcome of our country decides to navigate these issues, now and in the future.

Shahar Erez is CEO and Co-Founder of Stoke Talent.


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Super and gig economy | Mirage News

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Life used to be simpler. For better or worse most people found themselves with a basic career arc. You’d finish your studies, go into the workforce, and stay with the same employer until the day you retired. That scenario offered stability, and usually came with a retirement plan when you finally decided to put your feet up.

Times change, and the rise of the gig economy has seen more people self-employed or working on a contract basis. While that allows more freedom and options, it can also have serious financial repercussions, because it means you may need to manage your own super. Here’s how to get started.

Regular super payments add up

Whether you’re a freelance designer, delivery driver, or run your own online business, if you’re a self-employed worker you don’t automatically receive super contributions. Which means it’s on you to sort out your super and make sure you’re planning-ahead.

Research shows that around 20% of self-employed people have no super savings. And in the long run their super balances are around half that of employees.

Failing to build your super balance when you’re young means you’re missing out on years of compound interest and growth. Assuming you earn $60,000 per annum and contribute the standard 9.5% to super, you would have approximately $30,000 saved within five years. After a decade of default returns and fees that number would be just north of $65,000. Which puts you on track to retire with over $325,000.*

Taking matters into your own hands

So how do you balance the need for an immediate income with long-term savings goals?

There are a couple of practical things you can do, and some government incentives to help as well.

1. Make regular payments into your super

For a typical employee, an amount equal to 9.5% of their income is contributed to their super. Which means that every time they’re paid, a portion of their income is automatically paid into their super account.

If you’re working for yourself, you can do something similar by arranging regular payments into your super account.

Each super account has its own account number. Which means you can set-up regularly scheduled BPAY transfers with your bank to coincide with your pay cycle. Even if you can’t afford a 9.5% contribution, making regular contributions can help you develop good savings habits.

You can find your BPAY account details by logging into your account.

2. Take advantage of government incentives

If you earn less than $54,837 and you make a personal after-tax contribution to your super, you may qualify for a government co-contribution, which means your super payments could be topped up by the government after your lodge your annual tax return. The government is currently offering up to $500 in co-contributions annually.

If you’re on a higher income there are potential tax advantages for making super contributions. For example, if you make a (before tax) super contribution the money will be taxed at 15%, rather than your usual marginal tax rate. Which can mean a considerable tax saving, e.g., 15% vs 32.5%.

Either way, speaking with an accountant or financial planner can help you better understand your options, and make the most of your current income. An initial appointment with one of our financial planners is available at no additional charge, and is a great way to start.

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Just the Job: I’m thinking about going freelance and joining the gig economy?

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Q: I am a professional considering a change. I’ve been employed most of my career and I have done quite well. I would like to have a bit more control and freedom over what I do. So, I am exploring the option of working freelance or as part of the gig economy. It does scare me a bit, so I would like to understand a bit more about this area before making a decision (BC, email).

A: It is a scary thought going solo, and it is not for everyone. But it is not new, the gig economy has been going for some time and is growing at a fast pace, writes Ines Gonzalez, Career Coach, Sli Nua Careers.

We are moving into a more fluid way of working. It is okay to do different jobs and work for a few companies at the same time. The pandemic has indeed accelerated this process. It has also affected the rigidity of the traditional 9-5 practice with a more flexible approach for employees and freelancers.

But yes, having the safety and security of a company around you is hard to let go. And many entrepreneurs and freelancers often miss that salary that they know is coming at the end of the month.

So, what to do? In order to decide if this is for you, I would advise you not to leave your job. Explore your freelancing options first. For risk-averse personalities this model helps.

This first step is to explore and research your sector or industry. Keeping an open mind is important here to be able to understand opportunities as well as challenges. See who is doing it successfully and connect with them. Ask questions, most people won’t mind giving you a bit of advice. This exercise will help you to assess your risk.

Something important to consider when you start to work for yourself is that you will be a business owner, also known now as a micro-entrepreneur. This is not for everyone; it requires more skills than just doing your job.

You need to make sure that a constant flow of work is coming your way, or you won’t succeed. Designing business, marketing and sales plans are examples of tasks an entrepreneur must be able to do.

Finally, I would like to list three requirements I believe are critical to your success.

First, you need to have an absolute passion for what you do. Especially at the start, working for yourself can be very challenging. Your passion will take you through those tricky moments when you don’t know if it’s ever going to work.

Second, you need to be good at what you do, and really understand your niche. This sounds obvious but it is worth stating nonetheless. You may have feedback from your employer or past clients. Review that feedback in detail. In which area do you excel? How can you market yourself as an expert?

Third, there is a demand in the market for the services you provide. Here we need to look at the sector as a whole. Identifying your exact customer or ‘customer persona’ and what they want is crucial. Looking at the competition, and big players in the market, will also help identify where you and your skill fit.

Slí Nua Careers (www.SliNuaCareers.com) offer a full online service. Their services include CV preparation, interview training, job-searching strategies, public speaking and presentation skills, and career direction. For more details, visit www.slinuacareers.co

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Impact Of Covid-19 on Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market 2021 Industry Challenges, Business Overview and Forecast Research Study 2026

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Overview for “Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market” Helps in providing scope and definitions, Key Findings, Growth Drivers, and Various Dynamics.

Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Data and Acquisition Research Study with Trends and Opportunities 2019-2024
The study of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy market is a compilation of the market of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy broken down into its entirety on the basis of types, application, trends and opportunities, mergers and acquisitions, drivers and restraints, and a global outreach. The detailed study also offers a board interpretation of the Gig Economy and Sharing Economy industry from a variety of data points that are collected through reputable and verified sources. Furthermore, the study sheds a lights on a market interpretations on a global scale which is further distributed through distribution channels, generated incomes sources and a marginalized market space where most trade occurs.

Along with a generalized market study, the report also consists of the risks that are often neglected when it comes to the Gig Economy and Sharing Economy industry in a comprehensive manner. The study is also divided in an analytical space where the forecast is predicted through a primary and secondary research methodologies along with an in-house model.

Download PDF Sample of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market report @ https://hongchunresearch.com/request-a-sample/110679

Key players in the global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy market covered in Chapter 4:
Couchsurfing
Lyft
Uber
Door Dash
Airbnb
Uber
Postmates
GoGoGrandparent
BlaBlaCar
Airbnb
Upwork
Task Rabbit
Fiverr
Lyft
SilverNest
Zipcar
Rover

In Chapter 11 and 13.3, on the basis of types, the Gig Economy and Sharing Economy market from 2015 to 2026 is primarily split into:
Gig Economy
Sharing Economy

In Chapter 12 and 13.4, on the basis of applications, the Gig Economy and Sharing Economy market from 2015 to 2026 covers:
Shared private car
Shared private residence
Independent contractor
Freelancers

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2026) of the following regions are covered in Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13:
North America (Covered in Chapter 6 and 13)
United States
Canada
Mexico
Europe (Covered in Chapter 7 and 13)
Germany
UK
France
Italy
Spain
Russia
Others
Asia-Pacific (Covered in Chapter 8 and 13)
China
Japan
South Korea
Australia
India
Southeast Asia
Others
Middle East and Africa (Covered in Chapter 9 and 13)
Saudi Arabia
UAE
Egypt
Nigeria
South Africa
Others
South America (Covered in Chapter 10 and 13)
Brazil
Argentina
Columbia
Chile
Others

For a global outreach, the Gig Economy and Sharing Economy study also classifies the market into a global distribution where key market demographics are established based on the majority of the market share. The following markets that are often considered for establishing a global outreach are North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the World. Depending on the study, the following markets are often interchanged, added, or excluded as certain markets only adhere to certain products and needs.

Here is a short glance at what the study actually encompasses:
Study includes strategic developments, latest product launches, regional growth markers and mergers & acquisitions
Revenue, cost price, capacity & utilizations, import/export rates and market share
Forecast predictions are generated from analytical data sources and calculated through a series of in-house processes.

However, based on requirements, this report could be customized for specific regions and countries.

Brief about Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Report with [email protected]https://hongchunresearch.com/report/gig-economy-and-sharing-economy-market-size-2020-110679

Some Point of Table of Content:

Chapter One: Report Overview

Chapter Two: Global Market Growth Trends

Chapter Three: Value Chain of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market

Chapter Four: Players Profiles

Chapter Five: Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Analysis by Regions

Chapter Six: North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Seven: Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eight: Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Nine: Middle East and Africa Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Ten: South America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Analysis by Countries

Chapter Eleven: Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Segment by Types

Chapter Twelve: Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Segment by Applications
12.1 Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
12.1.1 Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
12.1.2 Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
12.2 Shared private car Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
12.3 Shared private residence Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
12.4 Independent contractor Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
12.5 Freelancers Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2015-2020)

Chapter Thirteen: Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Forecast by Regions (2020-2026) continued…

Check [email protected]  https://hongchunresearch.com/check-discount/110679

List of tables
List of Tables and Figures
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2020-2026)
Figure Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Share by Type in 2019 & 2026
Figure Gig Economy Features
Figure Sharing Economy Features
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Size Growth by Application (2020-2026)
Figure Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Share by Application in 2019 & 2026
Figure Shared private car Description
Figure Shared private residence Description
Figure Independent contractor Description
Figure Freelancers Description
Figure Global COVID-19 Status Overview
Table Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Industry Development
Table SWOT Analysis
Figure Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Figure Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Market Size and Growth Rate 2015-2026
Table Industry News
Table Industry Policies
Figure Value Chain Status of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy
Figure Production Process of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy
Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Gig Economy and Sharing Economy
Figure Major Company Analysis (by Business Distribution Base, by Product Type)
Table Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)
Table Couchsurfing Profile
Table Couchsurfing Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Lyft Profile
Table Lyft Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Uber Profile
Table Uber Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Door Dash Profile
Table Door Dash Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Airbnb Profile
Table Airbnb Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Uber Profile
Table Uber Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Postmates Profile
Table Postmates Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table GoGoGrandparent Profile
Table GoGoGrandparent Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table BlaBlaCar Profile
Table BlaBlaCar Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Airbnb Profile
Table Airbnb Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Upwork Profile
Table Upwork Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Task Rabbit Profile
Table Task Rabbit Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Fiverr Profile
Table Fiverr Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Lyft Profile
Table Lyft Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table SilverNest Profile
Table SilverNest Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Zipcar Profile
Table Zipcar Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Table Rover Profile
Table Rover Production, Value, Price, Gross Margin 2015-2020
Figure Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2015
Table Global Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2019
Figure North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Middle East and Africa Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure South America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)
Table North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales by Countries (2015-2020)
Table North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019
Table North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)
Table North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure North America Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019
Figure United States Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Canada Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Mexico Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) Growth (2015-2020)
Table Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019
Table Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Europe Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019
Figure Germany Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure UK Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure France Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Italy Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Spain Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Russia Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020)
Table Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales Market Share by Countries in 2019
Table Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) by Countries (2015-2020)
Table Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries (2015-2020)
Figure Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2015
Figure Asia-Pacific Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue Market Share by Countries in 2019
Figure China Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Japan Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure South Korea Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Australia Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure India Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Southeast Asia Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
Figure Middle East and Africa Gig Economy and Sharing Economy Revenue ($) and Growth (2015-2020) continued…

About HongChun Research:
HongChun Research main aim is to assist our clients in order to give a detailed perspective on the current market trends and build long-lasting connections with our clientele. Our studies are designed to provide solid quantitative facts combined with strategic industrial insights that are acquired from proprietary sources and an in-house model.

Contact Details:
Jennifer Gray
Manager – Global Sales
+ 852 8170 0792
[email protected]

NOTE: Our report does take into account the impact of coronavirus pandemic and dedicates qualitative as well as quantitative sections of information within the report that emphasizes the impact of COVID-19.

As this pandemic is ongoing and leading to dynamic shifts in stocks and businesses worldwide, we take into account the current condition and forecast the market data taking into consideration the micro and macroeconomic factors that will be affected by the pandemic.

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