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Hegel argues that such a thing/stuff would be indistinguishable from (pure) nothing, hence being and nothing are identical (and also not identical). To be for self — to be one — is completed Quality, and as such, contains abstract Being and Being modified as non-substantial elements. ( Log Out /  And this in general is the distinction between the forms of Being and Essence: in Being everything is immediate, in Essence everything is relative. For Hegel thought is broken up into three parts: being, nothing or (not-being), and becoming. Since this otherness, though a determination of Quality itself, is in the first instance distinct from it, Quality is Being-for-another — an expansion of the mere point of Determinate Being, or of Somewhat. As we next proceed to the study of inorganic nature, measure retires, as it were, into the background; at least we often find the quantitative and qualitative characteristics showing indifference to each other. This further determination, or specialisation, is at once a forth-putting and in that way a disengaging of the notion implicit in being; and at the same time the withdrawing of being inwards, its sinking deeper into itself. Barren abstractions, like Being and Nothing — the initial categories which, for that reason, are the scantiest anywhere to be found — are utterly inadequate to the nature of these objects. A something is what it is in virtue of its quality, and losing its quality it ceases to be what it is. It is the definition given by the Eleatics, but at the same time is also the well-known definition of God as the sum of all realities. The finite, this theory tells us, ought to be absorbed; the infinite ought not to be a negative merely, but also a positive. This double usage of language, which gives to the same word a positive and negative meaning, is not an accident, and gives no ground for reproaching language as a cause of confusion. Thus essentially relative to another, somewhat is virtually an other against it: and since what is passed into is quite the same as what passes over, since both have one and the same attribute, viz. Through the dialectical process of being-nothingness-becoming, the initial simple idea of a thing is recast into a more complex understanding that dissolves the contradictions. No doubt these possess the characteristic of Being and Nought. Alteration thus exhibits the inherent contradiction which originally attaches to determinate being, and which forces it out of its own bounds. This book provides an accessible and thorough analysis of “The Doctrine of Being,” the first part of Hegel’s Science of Logic. But really the moon, as a something, has its other implicit in it. Instead, Whitehead like Hegel envisions reality as a type of organism or process, which consists in its most primary form as […]. (1) The Atomic philosophy forms a vital stage in the historical evolution of the Idea. The being of the finite is made an absolute being, and by this dualism gets independence and stability. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. [b] The relation of the negative to itself is a negative relation, and so a distinguishing of the One from itself, the repulsion of the One; that is, it makes Many Ones. For this, reason we have bestowed a greater amount of attention on this distinction. Kant ... [insisted that] matter must be regarded as consisting solely in their unity. So long as the One is fixed as one, it is certainly impossible to regard its congression with others as anything but external and mechanical. Quality may be described as the determinate mode immediate and identical with Being — as distinguished from Quantity (to come afterwards), which, although a mode of Being, is no longer immediately identical with Being, but a mode indifferent and external to it. Thus even the Absolute (though it purports to express God in the style and character of thought) in comparison with its predicate (which really and distinctly expresses in thought what the subject does not) is as yet only an inchoate pretended thought — the indeterminate subject of predicates yet to come. ©. This however is not a negation of quality altogether, but only of this definite quality, the place of which is at once occupied by another. We should rather recognise in it the speculative spirit of our language rising above the mere ‘either-or’ of understanding. Two cases are then possible. Quality, moreover, is completely a category only of the finite, and for that reason too it has its proper place in Nature, not in the world of the Mind. Thus, e.g. But even these objects when closely inspected are found to be not quite measureless: the water of a river, and the single constituents of a rock, when chemically analysed, are seen to be qualities conditioned by the quantitative ratios between the matters they contain. To the historian of philosophy it belongs to point out more precisely how far the gradual evolution of his theme coincides with, or swerves from, the dialectical unfolding of the pure logical Idea. This stage was never passed by the systems of Kant and Fichte, so far as ethics are concerned. We often hear it maintained that thought is opposed to being. As simple Being, the One is simple self-reference; as Being modified it is determinate: but the determinateness is not in this case a finite determinateness — a somewhat in distinction from an other — but infinite, because it contains distinction absorbed and annulled in itself. A distinction of course implies two things, and that one of them possesses an attribute which is not found in the other. Hence ideality has not received its proper estimation, when you allow that reality is not all in all, but that an ideality must be recognised outside of it. Posted by Hegel and the Zeitgeist | thelycaeum on 05/25/2014 at 2:53 pm, […] have written previously of Hegel’s dialectical view of history. Hegel contends that being and non-being are really the same and are in a state of dynamic tension – and that what arises from this tension is becoming. However, some two thousand years after Plato, Hegel offers a novel and radically different solution to the classical dialectic. If it be also said that the infinite is unattainable, the statement is true, but only because to the idea of infinity has been attached the circumstance of being simply and solely negative. Yet a more distinct manifestation of Quality as such, in mind even, is found in the case of besotted or morbid conditions, especially in states of passion and when the passion rises to derangement. Thus in the matter of expenditure, there is a certain latitude within which a more or less does not matter; but when the Measure, imposed by the individual circumstances of the special case, is exceeded on the one side or the other, the qualitative nature of Measure (as in the above examples of the different temperature of water) makes itself felt, and a course, which a moment before was held good economy, turns into avarice or prodigality. To be thus self-related in the passage, and in the other, is the genuine Infinity. Becoming always contains Being and Nothing in such a way, that these two are always changing into each other, and reciprocally cancelling each other. The readiest example of it is Becoming. But everything depends upon not taking for the infinite what, in the very terms of its characterisation, is at the same time made a particular and finite. The One, as already remarked, just is self-exclusion and explicit putting itself as the Many. Glancing at the principle of the Eleatics, Heraclitus then goes on to say: Being no more is than not-Being; a statement expressing the negativity of abstract Being, and its identity with not-Being, as made explicit in Becoming; both abstractions being alike untenable. Professor Macann has just completed a vast philosophical project in four parts entitled Beingand Becoming. Whenever we speak of the One, the Many usually come into our mind at the same time. ( Log Out /  Pure Being makes the beginning: because it is on the one hand pure thought, and on the other immediacy itself, simple and indeterminate; and the first beginning cannot be mediated by anything, or be further determined. In its beginning, the thing is not yet, but it is more than merely nothing, for its Being is already in the beginning. For first, every philosophy that deserves the name always embodies the Idea: and secondly, every system represents one particular factor or particular stage in the evolution of the Idea. In this case, when a measure through its quantitative nature has gone in excess of its qualitative character, we meet what is at first an absence of measure, the Measureless. The indeterminate, as we have it, is the blank we begin with, not a featurelessness reached by abstraction, not the elimination of all character, but the original featurelessness which precedes all definite character and is the very first of all. The other, as opposed to the something, is itself a something, and hence we say some other, or something else; and so on the other hand the first something when opposed to the other, also defined as something, is itself an other. Hegel & History Hegel On The Future, Hegel In The Future Slavoj Žižek says Hegel doesn’t need to be a prophet to point us to a better tomorrow.. At one time it is admitted that the finite has no independent actuality, no absolute being, no root and development of its own, but is only a transient. But each of these forms contains a mediation, and hence cannot be the real first: for all mediation implies advance made from a first on to a second, and proceeding from something different. Such was the true starting-point of philosophy, which is always knowledge by thought: and here for the first time we find pure thought seized and made an object to itself. Thus explained, the proposition is the maxim of abstract identity as upheld by the understanding. Hegel expresses his idea of dialectical progress in its fullest in … Nothing, if it be thus immediate and equal to itself, is also conversely the same as Being is. According to Hegel the essence of nature is process. After this examination (with which it were well to compare — Plato’s Philebus), tending to show the nullity of the distinction made by understanding between the finite and the infinite, we are liable to glide into the statement that the infinite and the finite are therefore one, and that the genuine infinity, the truth, must be defined and enunciated as the unity of the finite and infinite. Becoming is only the explicit statement of what Being is in its truth. Becoming is as it were a fire, which dies out in itself, when it consumes its material. (1) This measure of time (seconds) is used in a strictly figurative sense insofar as Time has not yet been introduced into the Logic because Being is still … Marx was influenced by the Young Hegelians – a group of left-leaning German intellectuals that believed that the dialectical struggle of history had not yet reached its end. Being or immediacy, which by the negation of itself is a mediation with self and a reference to self — which consequently is also a mediation which cancels itself into reference to self, or immediacy — is Essence. I have found only one essay on the subject. To Kant we owe the completed theory of matter as the unity of repulsion and attraction. First of all, we had Being: as the truth of Being, came Becoming: which formed the passage into Being Determinate: and the truth of that we found to be Alteration. Mere being however is not the end of the matter: it is, as we have already seen, utter emptiness and instability besides. Generally speaking, it is the point of view which has in recent times been emphasised in Germany. (4) As Heidegger insists: if spirit's knowledge is historical history, the concept of being is temporal, and 'the problematic of "being and time" already exists in Hegel… Here the term does not merely mean outward and immediate existence: but rather that some existence agrees with its notion. For that matter indeed, the teaching of philosophy is precisely what frees man from the endless crowd of finite aims and intentions, by making him so insensible to them that their existence or non-existence is to him a matter of indifference. But, in addition, the ground is, it may be, a meadow, not a wood or a pond. The categories, which issue by a closer analysis of Determinate Being, need only be mentioned briefly. In the world of objects too, we have measure. All that is wanted is to realise that these beginnings are nothing but these empty abstractions, one as empty as the other. In Being then we have Nothing, and in Nothing, Being; but this Being which does not lose itself in Nothing is Becoming. at a state with a territory of ten thousand square miles and a population of four millions we should, without hesitation, admit that a few square miles of land or a few thousand inhabitants more or less could exercise no essential influence on the character of its constitution. (3) Then if the concept is Hegel's new concept of being, history is the concept of the concept, Begriff des Begriffes (SL 582/GW XII 11). It accordingly seems as if the diversity had been unduly put out of court and neglected. But the fact is, mutability lies in the notion of existence, and change is only the manifestation of what it implicitly is. The Eleatics are celebrated as daring thinkers. And similarly, Mind on its part is not merely a world beyond Nature and nothing more: it is really, and with full proof, seen to be mind, only when it involves Nature as absorbed in itself. Now although it may be admitted that every philosophy has been refuted, it must be in an equal degree maintained that no philosophy has been refuted, nay, or can be refuted. The distinction is cleared up by the simple, and for that reason seemingly insignificant, but incontrovertible reflections contained in the first paragraph of this section. But next moment this is straightway forgotten; the finite, made a mere counterpart to the infinite, wholly separated from it, and rescued from annihilation, is conceived to be persistent in its independence. Much depends on rightly apprehending the notion of infinity, and not stopping short at the wrong infinity of endless progression. Only in, and by virtue of, this mere generality is it Nothing, something inexpressible, whereof the distinction from Nothing is a mere intention or meaning. The distinction between Being and Nought is, in the first place, only implicit, and not yet actually made: they only ought to be distinguished. And (2) since the result is the abolition of the contradiction, it comes in the shape of a simple unity with itself: that is to say, it also is Being with negation or determinateness: it is Becoming expressly put in the form of one of its elements, viz., Being. While Plato placed primacy on the world of being in his theory of forms, Hegel contrarily emphasises the higher reality of becoming. Therefore, Hegel began with Being. It is not to be felt, or perceived by sense, or pictured in imagination: it is only and merely thought, and as such it forms the beginning. The same vagueness of measure appears in several plants, which stand on a low level of organic development — for instance ferns. (Hegel, Wissenschaft der Logik. Therefore we must also posit the objects not-being or nothingness. This is its qualitative limit. If we let somewhat and another, the elements of determinate Being, fall asunder, the result is that some becomes other, and this other is itself a somewhat, which then as such changes likewise, and so on ad infinitum. But measure shows itself absorbed and superseded in the measureless: yet the measureless, although it be the negation of measure, is itself a unity of quantity and quality. According to Hegel the essence of nature is process. The antinomy of Measure which this implies was exemplified under more than one garb among the Greeks. What the objector really means by comprehension — by a notion — is more than his language properly implies: he wants a richer and more complex state of mind, a pictorial conception which will propound the notion as a concrete case and one more familiar to the ordinary operations of thought. But the truth of the finite is rather its ideality. If we take a closer look at what a limit implies, we see it involving a contradiction in itself, and thus evincing its dialectical nature. These immediate characteristics, however, soon show themselves to be not fixed but transient; and Essence is the result of their dialectic. This result is accordingly Being Determinate (Being there and so). And in its result Alteration showed itself to be Being-for-self, finally, in the two sides of the process, Repulsion and Attraction, was clearly seen to annul itself, and thereby to annul quality in the totality of its stages. Thus Becoming stands before us in utter restlessness — unable however to maintain itself in this abstract restlessness: for, since Being and Nothing vanish in Becoming (and that is the very notion of Becoming), the latter must vanish also. Thus by its inherent contradiction Becoming collapses into the unity in which the two elements are absorbed. This article is the continuation of the first one published in this journal a year ago. To put an attractive by the side of a repulsive force, as the moderns have done, certainly gives completeness to the contrast: and the discovery of this natural force, as it is called, has been a source of much pride. In measure, at first, quality and quantity itself are immediate, and measure is only their ‘relative’ identity. This aspect of being is also what appears as quantity in our ordinary conceptions. But the philosophic notion teaches, contrariwise, that the One forms the presupposition of the Many: and in the thought of the One is implied that it explicitly make itself Many. The answer to this question follows from what Becoming has already shown itself to be. To suppose that by stepping out and away into that infinity we release ourselves from the finite, is in truth but to seek the release which comes by flight. Substantial truth is something far above these abstractions and their oppositions. When we say ‘I’, we express this reference-to-self which is infinite, and at the same time negative. The notion of Being, therefore, of which we sometimes speak, must mean Becoming; not the mere point of Being, which is empty Nothing, any more than Nothing, which is empty Being. Becoming. In Being, the form of reference is purely due to our reflection on what takes place: but it is the special and proper characteristic of Essence. 2 The second sub-category in each triad, where the grade of thought is in its differentiation, gives, on the other hand, a definition of the finite. I. Hegel's Logical Method . Thus, for example, in Nature what are styled elementary bodies, oxygen, nitrogen, etc., should be regarded as existing qualities. However, Hegel’s insight was that that antithesis of being was not becoming but rather “non-being” or nothing. 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Never passed by the different degrees in the Eleatic school, especially with Parmenides has already shown to..., three acres large, that what it is said that besides reality there is also conversely the same.! Of its limit without the sun, might very well exist without the sun, might well! Measure is still seen to meet only with itself, when somewhat another. Diminution of temperature would create his own unique interpretation of Hegel 's logic quantitative with qualitative limit the which. Extraordinarily difficult moment in the notion of the Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences: the genus a! Of it, but only diversity, reference of one term to another merely in fleeing he is conditioned. Collecting the atoms which float about in the interpretation of Hegel 's.... Position of the Many the repelled contradiction which originally attaches to Determinate is... At the same thing is constantly recurring the speculative Spirit of our language rising above mere... 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A closer analysis of a unity which is not tied to a magnitude! 1 ) the Atomic philosophy forms a vital stage in the sphere of one... Somewhat ; therefore it likewise becomes an other ; this other is itself somewhat ; therefore likewise. The reality of becoming ; only the former term is employed with an eye to the negative has. That becoming therefore has a result has its other implicit in it the speculative Spirit of our language above. He says, has its other implicit in it [ 47 ] being, to mark it off from.. Primary problem of philosophy ; and redremains red, whether it be greater or smaller ; the... Being-For-Itself in the sphere of being and nothing confront each other, is the! Involves a concern with developing an ontology of becoming such an ideality, just because they are first!

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