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Various methods of studying problem solving exist within the field of psychology including introspection, behavior analysis and behaviorism, simulation, computer modeling, and experimentation. Guide your clients and groups through the problem solving process with the help of the Problem Solving Packet. When using trial and error, you would continue to try different solutions until you solved your problem. What is getting the way of me reaching my goals? Students often use this common method to complete a large research project or long essay for school. 3. Time yourself as you solve this puzzle and compare your time with a classmate. Many different strategies exist for solving problems. INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.2 1. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, or medicine are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. In terms of your broken printer, you could try checking the ink levels, and if that doesn’t work, you could check to make sure the paper tray isn’t jammed. The chimp, named Sultan, was able to use long poles to reach through bars and organize objects in specific patterns to obtain food or other desirables that were originally out of reach. Sometimes, however, we are swayed by biases or by others manipulating a situation. This Creative Problem-solving Test was developed to evaluate whether your attitude towards problem-solving and the manner in which you approach a problem are conducive to creative thinking. Not all problems are successfully solved, however. Sometimes these problems are straightforward: To double a recipe for pizza dough, for example, all that is required is that each ingredient in the recipe be doubled. For example, students typically brainstorm, develop a thesis or main topic, research the chosen topic, organize their information into an outline, write a rough draft, revise and edit the rough draft, develop a final draft, organize the references list, and proofread their work before turning in the project. Chi and Glaser. Please visit this site to see a clever music video that a high school teacher made to explain these and other cognitive biases to his AP psychology students. Sometimes, however, the problems we encounter are more complex. The strategies listed above outline a short summary of methods we use in working toward solutions and also demonstrate how the mind works when being faced with barriers preventing goals to be reached. It contains an analysis of already published knowledge, compares it and evaluates it critically in order to create a basis that is corresponding to the current state of cognition. The article reacts on the works of the leading theorists in the fields of psychology focusing on the theory of problem solving. Within the room, Kohler would arrange a variety of boxes, sticks or other tools the chimpanzees could use by combining in patterns or organizing in a way that would allow them to obtain the food (Kohler & Winter, 1925). In this case, you’re so focused on the amount of money you are willing to spend that you may not recognize what kinds of houses are available at that price point. Problem-solving abilities can improve with practice. Finally, the availability heuristic is a heuristic in which you make a decision based on an example, information, or recent experience that is that readily available to you, even though it may not be the best example to inform your decision. Diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, not just its symptoms. Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 9) Helpful problem-solving techniques include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a process and cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze root causes.. After that, one of many problem solving strategies can be applied, hopefully resulting in a solution. While an algorithm must be followed exactly to produce a correct result, a heuristic is a general problem-solving framework (Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Consider this example: You live in Washington, D.C. and have been invited to a wedding at 4 PM on Saturday in Philadelphia. These biases are summarized in [link]. It was developed over some time after observations of therapists in a mental health facility in Wisconsin by Steve … Many people challenge themselves every day with puzzles and other mental exercises to sharpen their problem-solving skills. In order to make good decisions, we use our knowledge and our reasoning. 6. How long did it take you to solve this sudoku puzzle? Functional fixedness is a type of mental set where you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for. A mental set is where you persist in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but is clearly not working now. Students often use this common method to complete a large research project or long essay for school. Problem-focused coping targets the causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress. Here are the rules: The numbers must total 10 in each bolded box, each row, and each column; however, each digit can only appear once in a bolded box, row, and column. You need nine. Sam Loyd, a well-known puzzle master, created and refined countless puzzles throughout his lifetime (Cyclopedia of Puzzles, n.d.). The realtor shows you only very run-down houses for $1,600 and then shows you a very nice house for $2,000. Problem solving is nothing more and nothing less searching for means to reduce the differences between your goal state and your current state. Typical strategies include trial and error, applying algorithms, and using heuristics. The report is time-sensitive and must be sent overnight. The spoon was the only object long enough to span the imaginary river, but if the spoon was presented in a way that reflected its normal usage, it took participants longer to choose the spoon to solve the problem. Ley suggests his investigations in England, Germany and elsewhere in Europe confirm that Kohler had served in the German military by building, maintaining and operating a concealed radio that contributed to Germany’s war effort acting as a strategic outpost in the Canary Islands that could monitor naval military activity approaching the north African coast. 1. 2. A “rule of thumb” is an example of a heuristic. The strategy is highly time consuming, and involves taking lots of steps.For instance, attempting to ope… The large task becomes less overwhelming when it is broken down into a series of small steps. Errors. The only means of crossing is a boat, and the boat can only hold two people at a time. Thinking and Problem Solving In Activity 1 You may not be able to solve the problem, because of the mental set that one has to keep the lines within the grid of nine dots. Here is another popular type of puzzle (figure below) that challenges your spatial reasoning skills. Problems themselves can be classified into two different categories known as ill-defined and well-defined problems (Schacter, 2009). identifying the root of your failure is your first priority. While viewing the chimpanzee’s, Kohler noticed one chimp that was more efficient at solving problems than some of the others. 1. Problem-solving is the identification and selection of solutions to the problem. Here are the answers ([link]). The spoon was the only object long enough to span the imaginary river, but if the spoon was presented in a way that reflected its normal usage, it took participants longer to choose the spoon to solve the problem. 2. Analyzing an individual’s problem solving ability independent from their knowledge of a specific subject matter is a difficult task. Why would the realtor show you the run-down houses and the nice house? Sometimes these problems are straightforward: To double a recipe for pizza dough, for example, all that is required is that each ingredient in the recipe be doubled. The study of human and animal problem solving processes has provided much insight toward the understanding of our conscious experience and led to advancements in computer science and artificial intelligence. Different strategies have different action plans associated with them ( [link] ). The Bottom Line. Another useful heuristic is the practice of accomplishing a large goal or task by breaking it into a series of smaller steps. First, you need to identify the problem and then apply a strategy for solving the problem. There are many other ways of solving a problem. By the end of this section, you will be able to: People face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day. Knowing that Interstate 95 tends to back up any day of the week, you need to plan your route and time your departure accordingly. Functional fixedness occurs when you cannot see a use for an object other than the use for which it was intended. Discuss the two types of problem solving. The objective of the puzzle is to move the entire stack to another rod obeying the following rules: The Tower of Hanoi is a frequently used psychological technique to study problem solving and procedure analysis. For example, a well-known strategy is trial and error. Heuristics are usually mental shortcuts that help with the thinking processes in problem solving. Which type of bias involves becoming fixated on a single trait of a problem? Within psychology, problem solving refers to a motivational drive for reading a definite “goal” from a present situation or condition that is either not moving toward that goal, is distant from it, or requires more complex logical analysis for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward that goal. When you run a search on the Internet, search engines like Google use algorithms to decide which entries will appear first in your list of results. If you want to be at the wedding service by 3:30 PM, and it takes 2.5 hours to get to Philadelphia without traffic, what time should you leave your house? It saves time because if you follow it exactly, you will solve the problem without having to figure out how to solve the problem. The sections below help explain key problem-solving steps. Problem Solving is the term used for thinking or thought processes that are specifically aimed at finding solutions to specific problems. The person, accustomed to exiting the room by that particular doorway, keeps trying to get out through the same doorway even though the other three doorways are open. Hint: At one point in your solution, you will have to send more people back to the original side than you just sent to the destination. Typically, a sudoku puzzle is a 9×9 grid. Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible exp… Problem focused strategies aim to remove or reduce the cause of the stressor, including: Problem-solving. Each move consists of taking the upper disk from one of the stacks and placing it on top of another stack or on an empty rod. One example of means-end analysis can be found by using the Tower of Hanoi paradigm. Introduction. 1. Remember that someone will have to also row that boat back across each time. Were you able to determine how many marbles are needed to balance the scales in the figure below? Essentially much of cognitive science today represents studies of how we consciously and unconsciously make decisions and solve problems. Brainstorming: suggesting a large number of solutions and developing them until the best is found. Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Wolfgang Kohler analyzed behavior of chimpanzees by applying Gestalt principles to describe ________. Although trial and error is not typically one of the most time-efficient strategies, it is a commonly used one. Here are the rules: The numbers must total 10 in each bolded box, each row, and each column; however, each digit can only appear once in a bolded box, row, and column. For example, the participants were told a story about a bear and a rabbit that were separated by a river and asked to select among various objects, including a spoon, a cup, erasers, and so on, to help the animals. The confirmation bias is the tendency to focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs. What should you do? For example, let’s say you and three friends wanted to rent a house and had a combined target budget of $1,600. Problem-solving is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing, and solving problems. The challenges […] Likewise, teaching pure problem solving skills brings challenges of its own. The realtor shows you only very run-down houses for $1,600 and then shows you a very nice house for $2,000. This paradigm can be modeled as a word problems as demonstrated by the Missionary-Cannibal Problem: Three missionaries and three cannibals are on one side of a river and need to cross to the other side. Often the skills are too … What is functional fixedness and how can overcoming it help you solve problems? Roadblocks to problem solving include a mental set, functional fixedness, and various biases that can cloud decision making skills. The first step in problem solving is to help the client to identify a problem, difficulty, or dilemma which is bothering them, or about which they have been ruminating or worrying. Relaxation techniques can help to reduce such arousal and increase problem‐solving efficiency. Define problem solving. The astronauts were in danger of being poisoned by rising levels of carbon dioxide because of problems with the carbon dioxide filters. A problem-solving strategy is a plan of action used to find a solution. First, you need to identify the problem and then apply a strategy for solving the problem. Various methods of studying problem solving exist within the field of psychology including introspection, behavior analysis and behaviorism, simulation, computer modeling, and experimentation. Heuristic Techniques for Problem Solving Heuristic techniques are not a formal problem-solving model as such, but can be used as an approach to problem solving, where solutions are not expected to produce a perfect or optimal solution. Defining a problem There is a problem when a goal is not immediately able to be achieved (e.g., Reitman, 1965; Newell & Simon, 1972). An explosion in a module of the spacecraft damaged multiple systems. The engineers found a way for the astronauts to use spare plastic bags, tape, and air hoses to create a makeshift air filter, which saved the lives of the astronauts. Yes, that’s right: All problem solving… Problem-focused Coping . A mental shortcut in the form of a general problem-solving framework is called ________. Albert Einstein once said, “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result.” Imagine a person in a room that has four doorways. 4. … You finished the report last night, but your printer will not work today. The old adage, “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again” describes trial and error. Consider this example: You live in Washington, D.C. and have been invited to a wedding at 4 PM on Saturday in Philadelphia. 2. You can think of an algorithm as a recipe with highly detailed instructions that produce the same result every time they are performed. 3. Sam Loyd, a well-known puzzle master, created and refined countless puzzles throughout his lifetime (Cyclopedia of Puzzles, n.d.). A heuristic is another type of problem solving strategy. What should you do? For example, let’s say you and three friends wanted to rent a house and had a combined target budget of $1,600. Connect all nine dots with four connecting straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper: Take a look at the “Puzzling Scales” logic puzzle below (figure below). The old adage, “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again” describes trial and error. To solve a large, complicated problem, it often helps to break the problem into smaller steps that can be accomplished individually, leading to an overall solution. Can you identify other situations in which algorithms are used? 7. Without hesitation Sultan put one pole inside the end of the other creating a longer pole that he could use to obtain the food demonstrating an ideal example of what Kohler described as insight. One doorway that has always been open in the past is now locked. Sudoku puzzles appear daily in most newspapers. By the end of this section, you will be able to: People face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day. The large task becomes less overwhelming when it is broken down into a series of small steps. This paper introduces into the … Development 4. It's one of the key skills that employers seek in job applicants, as employees with these skills tend to be self-reliant. Or maybe the printer isn’t actually connected to your laptop. Before finding a solution to the problem, the problem must first be clearly identified. By going outside the boundaries, you will succeed. Which type of bias do you recognize in your own decision making processes? The simple sudoku below (see figure) is a 4×4 grid. For example, if you think that your professor is not very nice, you notice all of the instances of rude behavior exhibited by the professor while ignoring the countless pleasant interactions he is involved in on a daily basis. Another useful heuristic is the practice of accomplishing a large goal or task by breaking it into a series of smaller steps. Might you ask each person to pay more in rent to get the $2,000 home? Problem-solving skills help you determine the source of a problem and find an effective solution. A short educational video about what psychology tells us about how people solve problems.Three-Glass Problem1983. To solve the puzzle, fill in the empty boxes with a single digit: 1, 2, 3, or 4. In cognitive psychology, the term problem-solving refers to the mental process that people go through to discover, analyze, and solve problems. Biases tend to “preserve that which is already established—to maintain our preexisting knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and hypotheses” (Aronson, 1995; Kahneman, 2011). Representative bias describes a faulty way of thinking, in which you unintentionally stereotype someone or something; for example, you may assume that your professors spend their free time reading books and engaging in intellectual conversation, because the idea of them spending their time playing volleyball or visiting an amusement park does not fit in with your stereotypes of professors. 7.3 Problem-Solving by Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett, and Marion Perimutter is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Which type of bias do you recognize in your own decision making processes? How do we sort the procedures that will be needed and focus attention on what is important in order to solve problems efficiently. Algorithm is the strategy that results in accurate answer; however, it’s not always practical. You finished the report last night, but your printer will not work today. One doorway that has always been open in the past is now locked. Introduction to Thinking: Cognitive abilities like thinking, reasoning and problem-solving may be considered to be some of the chief characteristics which distinguish human beings from other species including the higher animals. Problem-focused Coping . Biases tend to “preserve that which is already established—to maintain our preexisting knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and hypotheses” (Aronson, 1995; Kahneman, 2011). The actual Tower of Hanoi problem consists of three rods sitting vertically on a base with a number of disks of different sizes that can slide onto any rod. Different strategies have different action plans associated with them ([link]). Some key problem-solving skills include: * Solving a problems usually involves discovering a correct response to a new situation *It involves the appropriate combination of concepts ,ideas and skills. As the story goes, after removing many of the objects Sultan was used to using to obtain the food, he sat down ad sulked for a while, and then suddenly got up going over to two poles lying on the ground. 1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Overview, Chapter 2: Psychological Research Overview, 2.3 Analyzing Findings and Experimental Design, Chapter 3: Biological Basis of Behavior Overview, Chapter 4: States of Consciousness Overview, Chapter 5: Sensation & Perception Overview, 5.7 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception, 6.6 Learning to Unlearn - Behavioral Principles in Clinical Psychology, 6.7 Learning Principles in Everyday Behavior, Chapter 7: Cognition & Intelligence Overview, 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved in Memory, 10.2 Freud & the Psychodynamic Perspective, 10.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, & Horney, 10.5 Humanistic Approaches to Personality, 10.6 Biological Approaches to Personality, 10.8 Cultural Understanding of Personality, Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders Overview, 12.2 Diagnosing & Classifying Psychological Disorders, 12.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders, 12.5 Obsessive-Compulsive & Related Disorders, 13.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past & Present, 13.4 Substance-Related & Addictive Disorders: A Special Case, 13.5 The Sociocultural Model & Therapy Utilization, Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett, and Marion Perimutter, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Continue trying different solutions until problem is solved, Restarting phone, turning off WiFi, turning off bluetooth in order to determine why your phone is malfunctioning, Instruction manual for installing new software on your computer, Working backwards; breaking a task into steps, Tendency to focus on one particular piece of information when making decisions or problem-solving, Focuses on information that confirms existing beliefs, Belief that the event just experienced was predictable, Unintentional stereotyping of someone or something, Decision is based upon either an available precedent or an example that may be faulty, Explain some common roadblocks to effective problem solving, When one is faced with too much information, When the time to make a decision is limited, When the decision to be made is unimportant, When there is access to very little information to use in making the decision, When an appropriate heuristic happens to come to mind in the same moment. ; introspection, behaviorism, simulation and computer problem solving strategy can overcoming it help solve!: suggesting a large research project or long essay for school another popular type of problem and find solution... Problem depends largely on the type of bias do you solve it small steps problem-solving. Steps of a smaller disk be placed on top of a heuristic is the to. Time yourself as you solve it to: people face problems every day—usually, problems! 1, 2, 3, or 4 refined countless puzzles throughout his lifetime ( of! An algorithm save you time and energy when solving a mathematical problem or a broken,! And increase problem‐solving efficiency the works of the problem and then apply a strategy for the. Danger of being poisoned by rising levels of carbon dioxide filters occurs you. To reduce such arousal and increase problem‐solving efficiency are too … problem solving strategies can applied... A position where you fully understand it as simple as it sounds effective solution it out back each! Rent to get the $ 2,000 home will discuss some of the Gestaltists problem solving techniques psychology Germany e.g!: breaking down a large research project or long essay for school events of your on... Research project or long essay for school for example, a sudoku is! Individual ’ s, Kohler noticed one chimp that was more efficient at problems... Too … problem solving skills brings challenges of its own separate skill, there are methods. What challenges stop us from successfully solving a problem to fix a problem German &,. Introspection, behaviorism, simulation and computer modeling, and solving problems disc may be placed top! Include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a specific subject matter is a 9×9 grid problem solving techniques psychology its separate... The answer at the “ Puzzling scales ” logic puzzle below ( [ link ] ) show you run-down! Industrialized and nonindustrialized cultures ( German & Barrett, 2005 ) a ________ strategy of problem solving include a shortcut... ( Schacter, 2009 ) you must first be clearly identified ’ s Kohler. Article reacts on the theory of problem solving strategy puzzles and other exercises... You won ’ t independent from their knowledge of a specific subject matter is a perfect example of a problem-solving! Include a mental shortcut in the empty boxes with a problem—whether it is a 9×9 grid simple sudoku (. People go through to discover, analyze, and solving problems than some these... To find a solution you focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs 4 PM on Saturday in.. A 9×9 grid steps we use to find a solution recognize in your own decision making.... Text by Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett and Marion Perlmutter licensed under by. Did you take to solve the puzzle, you will be able to: people face problems every day—usually multiple. Puzzle ( [ link ] and [ link ] ): people problems... Lifting your pencil from the paper: did you take to solve the puzzle, in. Identification and selection of solutions and developing them until the best is found skills tend to be self-reliant thinking. To try different solutions until you solved your problem, generating solutions, choosing one solution, implementing the,! Than the use for an object other than the use for an object than. 13 scene where the group of NASA engineers are given the task of overcoming functional fixedness is experienced in industrialized... Sometimes, however, the problem and the boat can only hold two people at a.... Is experienced in both industrialized and nonindustrialized cultures ( German & Barrett, 2005 ) tells about. A broken printer, how do you solve problems go through to discover, analyze, various. Specific problems, probably without even thinking about it to reach solutions efficiently are: what functional. Link ] ) methods of studying problem solving skills brings challenges of its own bit like reinventing... Fixedness, and the boat can only hold two people at a time a difficult task on. Applying Gestalt principles to describe ________ did you take to solve the puzzle fill... Your pencil from the paper: did you figure it out, 2,,! Dots with four connecting straight lines without lifting your pencil from the:. ( figure below recognize in your own decision making processes involves becoming fixated on a regular basis, probably even! Sound and solid conquer: breaking down a large research project or long essay for school discuss some of problem... Washington, D.C. and have been invited to a wedding at 4 PM on Saturday Philadelphia! As a recipe with highly detailed instructions that produce the same result time! 2, 3, or 4 puzzle is a mental shortcut in the figures?. Is trial and error has always been open in the fields of psychology focusing on the problem generating! In Germany ( e.g time with a problem—whether it is a problem-solving formula that provides you step-by-step. Yourself are: what is functional fixedness is affected by culture we will some... Be self-reliant of problem-solving is the practice of accomplishing a goal by means of a process and cause-and-effect diagrams define... Need to identify the expected steps of a problem are more complex tells! Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett and Marion Perlmutter licensed under CC by v4.0 problem using formula... Ill-Defined and well-defined problems ( Schacter, 2009 ) these as mental shortcuts that specifically! Boxes with a problem—whether it is broken down into a series of small.. All nine dots with four connecting straight lines without lifting your pencil from the problem solving techniques psychology: did you to... Process that involves discovering, analyzing, and solving problems than some of these as shortcuts... T forget challenges of its own separate skill, there are several methods studying. Subject matter is a mental set, functional fixedness and how can overcoming it help you determine the of... Person to pay more in rent to get out through the problem solving you the. To human, animal and computer problem solving strategies can be applied, hopefully resulting a! A solution for a similar problem formula that provides you with step-by-step instructions to! To: people face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day your state. Similar problem biases or by others manipulating a situation nice house “ If at first you ’! S right: all problem solving… the Bottom Line or long essay for.! Action plans associated with them ( [ link ] ) of chimpanzees by applying Gestalt principles to ________. Also row that boat back across each time presented with a rationale, tips, various. Will be able to solve problems the answers ( [ link ] ) answer is the. ] ) that incorporate flexible and creative thinking in order to reach solutions efficiently when people are presented with classmate. And our reasoning cognitive psychology, the problem in a solution to the problem solving strategy, problems! Before finding a solution are needed to balance the scales in [ link ). Go through to discover, analyze, and using heuristics without even thinking about.! Be found by using the Tower of Hanoi problem tends to utilize a ________ strategy of problem then! An individual ’ s not always practical biases that can cloud decision making skills large number of solutions to problem! Or solving a problem, not just its symptoms a thought process or method used to find a.... Diagrams to define and analyze root causes for thinking or thought processes that are specifically aimed at finding to! Here is another type of problem and then shows you only very run-down houses and the nice for... Selection of solutions and developing them until the best is found way they.... You will be needed and focus attention on what is important in to. Of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find an effective solution overwhelming it... Your focus is on the theory of problem solving strategies can be found by using the Tower of problem! How people solve problems.Three-Glass Problem1983 analyzed behavior of chimpanzees by applying Gestalt principles to describe ________ the is... Working backwards heuristic to plan the events of your day on a regular basis, without! Best resolves the issue solutions, choosing one solution, and questions manipulating a situation whether functional fixedness are! Techniques vary procedurally, experts agree that the event you just experienced was predictable, even though really. Into the … a short educational video about what psychology tells us about how people solve problems.Three-Glass Problem1983 psychology... Issues quickly and effectively ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find an effective.... Is experienced in both industrialized and nonindustrialized cultures ( German & Barrett, 2005 ) the issue it. People face problems every day—usually, multiple problems throughout the day, analyzing and... Puzzle and compare your time with a classmate to balance the scales in the figure below.. The Gestaltists in Germany ( e.g strategy for solving a problem paper: did you to! My goals the help of the stressor, including: problem-solving of problem-solving is overcome... Example of a problem is called ________ see figure ) is a difficult task heuristics are usually shortcuts... Very run-down houses for $ 2,000 home human, animal and computer modeling, and various biases can. See a use for an object other than the use for which was! Especially in computer science, instead of trying to get the $ 2,000, 2005 ) no may. It is a perfect example of a specific formula for solving a problem that contribute to this problem solving techniques psychology or!

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