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TVET qualifications at level 5 (mostly 10+3 technical board diplomas like the DAE) through level 8 (TVET qualifications at the tertiary level) will eventually be defined and incorporated into the framework as well. Five million of these are at the elementary level, and the numbers only increase at the middle and secondary school levels. Between 1998 and 2017, Pakistan’s average population growth rate was 2.40%. A lack of trained teachers and teacher absenteeism are the other most often cited problems. A need is being felt for imparting factual knowledge about population dynamic, so that the younger generation may understand the nature and magnitude of the […] It remains to be seen if the economic situation will improve in the future and whether Pakistan can defuse its “population bomb” with inclusive economic development. According to HEC statistics, only 21 percent of full-time faculty at Pakistani universities held a PhD in 2015. To become affiliated with a BISE, schools need to meet certain quality criteria set by the individual boards. Only a small fraction of Pakistanis participate in upper-secondary education—merely about a quarter of students transition from grade 10 to grade 11. Most public universities, by contrast, are large multi-faculty research institutions that offer a full range of academic programs, including PhD programs, which are almost exclusively offered by public DAIs. Civics has recently been introduced in school curricula in place of Islamiyat for religious minority populations. Studying abroad can open immigration pathways in countries like Australia or Canada, while a foreign degree gives those that return a competitive edge on the Pakistani labor market. This situation is exacerbated by striking inequalities based on sex and socioeconomic status. Pakistan is the world's fifth-most-populous country.. During 1950–2012, Pakistan's urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the total population … PhDs produced in Pakistan since 1947 From 1947 to 2014, Pakistan’s higher education institutes (HEIs) produced 11,988 PhDs. The minimum passing grade in each subject is 33 percent. The education level of Females in Pakistan is very low. Given that Pakistan is witnessing the largest population growth of youth in its history, with two-thirds of the population projected to be below the age of 30 for the next three decades, TVET is seen as perhaps the most critical education sector to address unemployment and develop a workforce capable of driving economic development. In this article let’s discuss overall situation of overpopulation and its effects on schooling throughout country. Credit hours are sometimes simply listed on academic transcripts without denoting whether the study was theoretical or practical. Meaning and Definition of Population Education 2. Contents. Recent government figures bring this into focus—merely 54 percent of elementary schools have electricity, 67 percent have drinking water, and 68 percent have latrines. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a culturally and linguistically diverse large South Asian country bordered by Afghanistan and Iran to the north and west, China to the northeast, India to the east and the Arabian Sea to the south. While there can be considerable differences in school curricula between provinces, overall curriculum guidelines are determined by the MFEP. The Pakistani government estimates that only about a third of children between the ages of three and four participate in formal early childhood education. According to the Global Youth Development Index published by the Commonwealth, a measure which uses the domains of civic participation, education, employment and opportunity, health and well-being, and political participation to gauge the progress of young people, Pakistan ranked only 154th of 183 countries, trailing sub-Saharan African nations like Sierra Leone or Ethiopia. Routledge. For articulation between the different systems, the HEC recommends converting the old percentage grades to current letter grades as follows. CASE STUDY 1: EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN Database Theory and Measuring Outcomes This case study is based on “Report Cards: The Impact of Providing School and Child Test-scores on Educational Markets”, by Tahir Andrabi, Jishnu Das, and Asim Ijaz Khwaja J-PAL thanks the authors for allowing us to use their paper as a teaching tool. If we go deep into the […] While enrollment ratios in some major cities are close to universal, Pakistan has  22.7 million out-of-school children (OOSC), as mentioned earlier. Education from The World Bank: Data. Skills standards are developed at the national level by a Qualification Development Committee that is overseen by the National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC). The overall transition rate from elementary to middle school stood at 84 percent nationwide in 2017. There are also sizable numbers of international students from various countries coming to Pakistan to study at Islamic universities or madrasahs. While Pakistan had a comparatively centralized system of government throughout much of its history, there has been a trend toward decentralization since the early 2000s, notably in education.  Transparency International. Note: In addition to these benchmark qualifications, universities offer a variety of shorter undergraduate-level diploma programs as well as postgraduate diplomas, which are mostly one year in duration and require a bachelor’s degree for admission. PIP: Those who fail more than two subjects must repeat the school year. Given the complex and historically autonomous nature of religious education in the country, however, only time will tell if these reforms will take hold. Some research and evaluation projects have been undertaken periodically to study the effectiveness of some of the family planning programs. While some variations in structure exist, the HEC has recently put forth overall guidelines for the implementation of a uniform semester system for HEIs. It’s crucial to understand that huge socioeconomic disparities exist in Pakistan not only between rural and urban regions, but also between the country’s diverse provinces. On the other hand, Islamic traditions remain very much alive in a society that is up to 96 percent Muslim, the majority of them Sunnis. The top six institutions in the 2015 ranking were Quaid-e-Azam University (public), the University of the Punjab (public), the National University of Science and Technology (NUST, public), the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (public), Aga Khan University (private), and the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (public). Permanent Delegation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to UNESCO Maison de l'UNESCO Bureaux M3.40, M3.41, M3.42 1, rue Miollis 75732 PARIS Cedex 15 Telephone 01.45.68.30.77 01.45.68.25.42 Fax 01.45.66.62.15 E-mail dl.pakistan(a)unesco-delegations.org At 2.03 percent Pakistan has the highest population growth rate in South Asia. Enrollment ratios have remained largely stagnant in recent years. Higher Education in Nigeria and the Emergence of Private Universities. An analytical study of higher education of Pakistan, 2011) Current education system in Pakistan is also not satisfactory. Population of Pakistan increasing day by day and has bad effects on our education system/standards. They range from dysfunctional and dilapidated school facilities that lack sanitation or electricity, to underqualified teaching staff, widespread corruption, and tens of thousands of “ghost teachers” that sap public payrolls by not showing up for work. It should be pointed out, however, that it only includes students enrolled in tertiary degree programs. Scholarship recipients are often required to return home after graduation. The four provinces are Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which was until 2010 known as the North-West Frontier Province. A steering body attached to the MFEP—the Inter Board Committee of Chairmen—coordinates curricula and examination-related matters between the different boards. Today, Pakistan’s national regulations formally stipulate a four-year bachelor’s degree in education or its equivalent as the minimum requirement to teach at Pakistani schools, from elementary through higher secondary levels. 1982 Jun;(23):159-70. Pakistan has significantly tightened the academic requirements for school teachers in recent years. education system would work according to the national aspirations of Pakistan. A passing score on the SSC examinations is required to progress to higher secondary education, which is two years in duration (grades 11 and 12) and provided by upper-secondary schools or so-called intermediate colleges, most of them public institutions. To put these rates into regional perspective, the secondary GER in both India and Bangladesh is 73 percent, and as high as 98 percent in Sri Lanka (UNESCO statistics). While Pakistan has created a tremendous amount of new doctoral programs over the past decade, growing numbers of Pakistani scholars are heading abroad to access higher quality education, primarily in fields like engineering and the sciences. Degree & above comprises fourteen or more years of education. However, many private providers are smaller, specialized, market-oriented institutions of lesser quality that mainly offer programs in fields like business management and information technology. Due to a high increase in the population, Pakistan is facing serious challenges like shortage of water, electricity, jobs infrastructure, public transportation, health, education law and order, and other social issues are prevailing in the society. The primary completion rate in Pakistan, given by Date Center ofUNESCO, is 33.8% in females and 47.18% in males, which shows that people in the 6th largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education. Tertiary enrollments spiked from only 305,000 in 1990 to 1.9 million in 2018, according to UNESCO. One of the formidable problems which stare us in the faces, is our rapid increasing population, which offsets every endeavour for development. For example, science group students typically take chemistry, physics, and mathematics; those in the pre-medical group take biology, physics, and chemistry. However, while these rankings are designed to be an annual ongoing process, their results were last made available to the public in 2015. The truth is that, at the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of Punjab. Postgraduate Bachelor of Education (BEd) credentials earned after one year of study following a two- or three-year bachelor’s degree in another discipline continue to be accepted for teaching positions at the lower secondary level (grades 9–10) as well. United Nations. A registry of qualifications is being developed but does not appear to be available publicly as of this writing. In:  International Journal of Education and Research, Vol. That said, there are sizable numbers of international students from Muslim-majority developing countries like Somalia, Sudan, Yemen, and, most notably, neighboring Afghanistan, who pursue studies in Pakistan, where they can access education of higher quality than they can at home. However, programs can vary in length. Offered in many fields of study, most notably computer science, humanities, sciences and social sciences, Master’s degrees, advanced graduate level programs in professional disciplines, Four-year programs are offered in agriculture, education, engineering, or nursing*. For an overview of the development of the university system see: Iruonagbe, C.T . In Pakistan education is being provided in six main levels: 1: Pre-primary education (preparatory classes). To ensure systematic and comprehensive coverage of population education through the existing formal and nonformal education programs the government is planning to undertake in collaboration with the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and other bilateral and multilateral funding agencies. Children in Pakistan are vulnerable to several development challenges impacting their safeguarding including: quality of education, prevention of sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking, marriage, and labour. Note, however, that the expensive private prep schools that teach British curricula like the Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) cater mostly to wealthy elites and are out of reach for most ordinary Pakistani households. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, UNESCO. Current lists of recognized universities, campuses, authorized transnational providers and programs, as well as illegally operating institutions are available here. Pakistan (previously, Federal) Bureau of Statistics (PBS) has ... report was produced within the ambit of a project initiative. Even though the roughly 2 percent rate is now slowing, the country’s population is estimated to reach 403 million by 2050 (UN median range projection). By comparison, semester fees at public institutions are relatively nominal, averaging 60,000 to 90,000 rupees (USD$390 to USD$585). Examples of the latter include the 10+3 Diploma in Nursing and Diploma of Associate Engineer (DAE)—qualifications that are examined by state boards of technical education and boards of nursing education. Pakistan is an Islamic state. Holders of a Master of Law (LLM) degree can practice and are exempt from the period of training and examination. Day by day, the population of Pakistan is increasing. International Organization for Migration. 2013. Islamiyat (Islamic studies) is a core subject up through lower-secondary school and is seen as critical to the inculcation of Islamic values in both personal development and the formation of a national identity. The world’s sixth most populous country, Pakistan contends with the risk of natural disasters, a large and growing youth bulge, and entrenched poverty and inequality, all of which pose significant challenges to delivering reproductive health services. Analysis of education system in Pakistan Meaning and Definition of Population Education: Most of the people agree ‘Population Education’ with education of the population. Some universities did not have any professors who held doctoral qualifications. To provide knowledge and understanding of the prevailing situation. In recent years, Pakistan has adopted increasingly modern methods of teaching and examination and has, following global trends, moved to a 12+4+2 structure. 2013. As a result of these cuts, some public universities had to slash their graduate programs and are unable to pay salaries and pensions. 2014. Pakistan is a federation composed of four provinces, the capital territory of Islamabad and the two autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. In addition, there are two private boards that offer intermediate and secondary examinations throughout the country—the Aga Khan University Examination Board and the recently established Ziauddin University Examination Board. The delivery of education services in Pakistan is severely impacted by economic, political and security challenges that the country has been facing for some years. These plans are partially driven by international pressure and concerns about political radicalization (see the section on madrasah education below). This move, while placing decision-making and funding into the hands of those with a greater understanding of local needs, has also created a fragmented system that lacks coordination and has produced uneven educational outcomes in different provinces. Examples include the Karachi branch campus of the Irish Griffith College, and TNE programs in accounting offered by the British Oxford Brookes University in collaboration with the Association of Chartered Accountants (ACCA). The General Certificate of Education O-Level Examination that was offered in Nigeria until 1989 has been replaced by a second annual SSC exam in November/December. By 2025, the number of tier 1 and 2 university-level institutions is projected to increase from 209 today to 300, serving more than seven million students. This article includes data reported by multiple agencies. Pakistan plans to increase this figure to 10% by 2015 and subsequently to 15% by 2020. India, by comparison, spent 4.6 percent of its GDP on education in 2016. The recent population of Pakistan is 186 millions. The British Council, for instance, expects Pakistan to be among the top 10 growth countries worldwide until 2027, despite an overall cooling of international student mobility on a global scale. One credit hour is equivalent to 50 minutes of classroom instruction each week throughout a semester of 16 to 18 weeks’ duration. This represents a significant increase from 2013 when there were 1,650 institutions with approximately 315,000 students. Additionally, applicants may have to sit for admission tests or interviews, especially at top-tier institutions. In Pakistan there are approximately 1.5 million documented individuals from Afghanistan. Since then, increased participation rates in elementary and secondary education, as well as the surging youth population growth of recent years, have led to a rapid expansion of the system. Indicative of such problems, the HEC in 2017 closed down more than 100 doctoral programs over quality concerns. Private education features prominently in Pakistani elementary and middle school education, as it helps to bridge capacity gaps in the underfunded public sector. Print 2018 Mar 21. They include certificates equivalent to the completion of middle school, secondary school (shahadatul sanvia aama), and higher secondary school (shahadatul sanvia aama)—credentials that are formally considered on par with SSC and HSC exams by government authorities. The contraceptive prevalence rate has stagnated, along with a very low number of skilled-attendance at births. Meaning and Definition of Population Education: Most of the people agree ‘Population Education’ with education of the population. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Several of the academic institutions of the Aga Khan Education Services in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh date back to the 19th century. On the other hand of the spectrum, Baluchistan is a vast, sparsely populated, and mountainous province of approximately 12 million people. JobsBorse is Designed for people who want to see daily newspaper jobs at one place instead of visiting different newspaper websites. Within the provinces themselves, the administration of education largely shifted from provincial governments to local district governments. The University of the Punjab has five campuses, more than 70 departments, and about 46,000 on-campus students. See, for example, the related program offerings of the University of the Punjab.Â. The education system would be truly related to the needs of the people of Pakistan. If Pakistan manages to educate and skill this surging youth population, it could harness a tremendous youth dividend that could help to fuel the country’s economic growth and modernization. The Population Planning Division of Pakistan and the Family Planning Association of Pakistan periodically develop materials which serve as supplementary readers; an orientation program for teachers began on a limited scale following the inception of population education in Pakistan. Short-cut students: From academic misconduct to academic integrity, In: Transparency International. Thailand [Population education in countries of the region]. Those 18-to-23-year-olds will represent 9% of the world’s population in 2030, and 8.4% in 2040. It should be noted, however, that China has emerged as a significant destination as well. Primary: 22,650,000. Student mobility data from different sources such as UNESCO, the Institute of International Education, and the governments of various countries may be inconsistent, in some cases showing substantially different numbers of international students, whether inbound, or outbound, from or in particular countries. Authorized DAIs are mostly chartered universities but also include research institutes or military academies. Tarar believes that education and employment are two of the keys to reducing the population in Pakistan. A minimum grade average of 50 percent or above (second division pass) is required by most institutions, but the threshold in more competitive disciplines like engineering and medicine is usually higher (at least 60 percent). Gender disparities are rampant with boys outnumbering girls at every stage of education. Of note, Pakistan also has an extensive system of madrasahs, or religious seminaries, which has grown explosively over the past decades, particularly in rural areas. Government funding for public higher education, which accounts for about 70 percent of operating costs, is vastly insufficient, especially in light of Pakistan’s debt crisis and recent austerity budgets. Get National Diploma ND, Higher National Diploma (HND), Undergraduate, Masters & PhD Research Works The HEC recommends the use of the following U.S.-style grading scale which has been adopted, with some variations, by a majority of HEIs in Pakistan. Pakistan’s population is set to grow by 40 million people in the next 15 years and the economy needs to grow by more than 7% a year to create jobs for this growing young population. To improve the quality of Pakistani universities, the HEC currently plans to create a three-tiered system of HEIs, including a top tier of 30 government-supported research universities that will cater to Pakistan’s best and brightest students. As noted in a recent HEC-sponsored study, “science subjects … are avoided by colleges because there is need of science laboratories to run those programs. HHS Access and quality of education is far behind of satisfactory level. Currently, Pakistan has the world’s second-highest number of out-of-school children (OOSC) with an estimated 22.8 million children aged 5-16 not attending school, representing 44 per cent of the total population in this age group.

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